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Суббота 20 Января 2018

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Рыбы на дереве
На дереве сидели две рыбы. Потом к ним прилетели еще три. Вопрос: сколько всего рыб стало на дереве? Это не шутка и не «прикол». Эту задачку из учебника арифметики для первого класса пересказала мне знакомая. Вы уже успели ее решить? А теперь внимание, правильный ответ: ни одной! Потому что рыбы не летают. 

Вообще-то даже первоклашки знакомы с этим научным фактом. И это, заметьте, урок арифметики, а не зоологии. Родители небось надеются, что их детишек считать учат. Но тут все куда круче: ребенка с малолетства приучают мыслить самостоятельно, а не принимать на веру слова учителя. Может, оно и хорошо, но для начала все-таки считать бы научили. 

У писателей-фантастов братьев Стругацких эпиграфом к моей любимой повести «Понедельник начинается в субботу» является такой анекдот. Учитель: «Дети, запишите: на дереве сидела рыба». Дети: «Но рыбы не сидят на деревьях!» — «Ну, это была сумасшедшая рыба…» В советское время учителя, задающего такие задачки, посчитали бы неадекватным. Да и сама ситуация отдавала «сюром» и могла быть только в анекдоте, а не в реальности. Но, как говорится, «мы рождены, чтоб Кафку сделать былью!» 

Не будем забывать, что мы четверть века назад начали строить капитализм. Какое отношение он имеет к дурацкой задачке? Да самое непосредственное. Рабочая сила должна знать ровно столько, чтобы уметь работать на капиталиста, и не более того. Она должна обладать профессиональными знаниями и навыками, чтобы зарабатывать прибыль и сверхприбыль для капиталиста. Зачем таким работникам широкий кругозор и культура? Под «рабочей силой» имеются в виду не только собственно рабочие, но и учителя с врачами, и менеджеры разного «розлива». Соответственно с этой установкой капитализм и строит систему образования. Он стремится дать неимущим минимальное, урезанное, ограниченное образование, которое должно сформировать полезную и послушную биомассу, ни в коем случае не развивать мысль, а наоборот — давить ее и глушить. Именно поэтому со времен перестройки сама идея фундаментального образования начала у нас последовательно дискредитироваться. 

Действительно, зачем перегружать ребенка какими-нибудь уроками по зоологии? Основные представления о ней вполне можно дать в рамках уроков математики. Ну, к примеру, что рыбы на дереве не сидят, а кролики удавов не едят. А зачем нужна география, когда можно просто купить билет в любой конец мира? Астрономия тем более уж бесполезна, поскольку нынешние школьники давным-давно не мечтают стать космонавтами. Прагматичнее надо быть, господа, прагматичнее. Заодно и детские головы от лишних знаний разгрузим. 

Мы тут все недавно ликовали по поводу возвращения сочинений по литературе в список экзаменов. Боюсь, рано обрадовались. Знаете, каковы критерии грамотности при оценке работ? Если ты на сто слов сделал не более пяти ошибок, считай, сдал. То есть в небольшом сочинении на триста слов можно спокойно сделать пятнадцать ошибок и не особенно напрягаться по этому поводу. Да в советское время это была бы стопроцентная двойка! А потом мы удивляемся какой-то тотальной безграмотности молодых людей, имеющих даже высшее образование.  

Но не стоит впадать в теорию заговора и искать в этом происки врагов конкретно против России. Законы капитализма одинаковы для всех стран и континентов. В качестве доказательства — некоторые цифры. Согласно докладу ЮНЕСКО, представленному четыре года назад, в мире насчитывается 774 миллиона взрослых людей, не умеющих читать и писать. Думаете, все они относятся к племенам типа мумба-юмба? Ничего подобного. 

В благополучных Нидерландах становится все больше тех, кто с трудом может читать и писать. В целом по стране более миллиона малограмотных в возрасте от 15 до 65 лет. За последние пять лет число их увеличилось на двести тысяч. А кроме этого четверть миллиона голландцев полностью неграмотны. Около семи с половиной миллионов жителей Германии не могут правильно читать и писать, а триста тысяч человек абсолютно незнакомы с алфавитом. Два  миллиона немцев могут только разобрать отдельные слова или с трудом их написать, более пяти миллионов способны прочитать лишь отдельные абзацы. Шестьдесят процентов мужчин и сорок процентов женщин обладают слабыми навыками в чтении и письме. И это показывают германские социологические исследования. Да и в Италии дела обстоят не лучше, если учесть, что четверть миллиона итальянских детей выходят из школы, не умея читать и писать.

Полагаете, в этом нет никакого умысла, просто система образования неудачная? Тогда вспомним еще раз перл бывшего министра, который говорил, что высшая математика убивает креативность и не нужна в школе, что советская система образования пыталась формировать человека-творца, вместо того чтобы вырастить квалифицированного потребителя. А  его преемник утверждал, что не нужно оценивать грамотность выпускников в сочинениях, так как это сковывает экзаменуемого. Ему же принадлежит идея о том, что только уход от бесплатного образования обеспечит экономике ценные кадры. И пока эти «рыбы» сидели на своих «ветвях», наше образование могло только деградировать. 

Мы уже получили поколение, не знающее ни собственной истории, ни литературы, не умеющее грамотно писать и стройно излагать свои мысли. Поколение попкорна и гаджетов. Но, чтобы не потерять и следующее, мало поменять школьную программу. Необходимо сменить основные ценности, которые мы так поспешили взять у капитализма вместе с рыночной экономикой. Потому что исконно нашими ценностями на рынке не торгуют. И надо успеть, пока мы еще интуитивно об этом помним.
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ПОКАЗАТЬ КОММЕНТАРИИСКРЫТЬ КОММЕНТАРИИ
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BobbyKnign
27 Октября 2017 13:53
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BobbyKnign
27 Октября 2017 13:53
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BobbyKnign
27 Октября 2017 14:57
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BobbyKnign
27 Октября 2017 14:57
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BobbyKnign
21 Ноября 2017 21:00
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BobbyKnign
2 Декабря 2017 13:32
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